The cornerstone of Valtri Bio’s science is the body’s well-characterized immune response to stroke. By measuring blood biomarkers associated with immune responses, we can identify stroke from non-stroke faster and with greater confidence than the current clinical standard.
Our approach does not rely on brain-specific biomarkers. Rather we employ machine learning and pattern recognition to the identification of different immune response patterns in the peripheral blood following various types of neuro-related brain injury. Relying on pattern recognition and ratios of biomarkers, rather than specific biomarkers allows for optimization and learning over time. The overall list of biomarkers is less important, and the pattern of expression becomes diagnostic. This pattern of expression of associated immune related biomarkers ensures that Valtari Bio’s diagnostic profiles can be generalized to various populations of patients.
Immune Response During Stroke – Adaptive and Innate Immune Systems
The human body has two distinct immune mechanisms that work together when the body is physiologically stressed. Following stroke and brain injury the immune system is activated. The degree and direction of the immune system activation allows the accurate identification of acute stroke from non-stroke.
Generally speaking, the immune system consists of two arms: the innate and adaptive immune systems; the peripheral blood immune response in these two systems contributes to a series of reactions that control brain damage and facilitate repair and recovery.
The cells of the innate immune system, predominantly neutrophils, are rapidly activated following stroke and brain injury and migrate from peripheral lymphoid organs into the brain over the course of minutes and hours to facilitate acute inflammation.
The cells of the adaptive immune response, predominantly T and B lymphocytes, become activated over time and migrate from the peripheral blood into the brain hours to days following injury to control innate inflammatory mechanisms and facilitate repair.
Both arms of the immune system are crucial for clearing damaged brain tissue in the acute phase following brain injury and promoting brain and vascular repair in the chronic phase of injury. However, an excessive or imbalanced immune response contributes to increased brain tissue injury and poor patient outcomes.
Valtari Bio’s current VALISS clinical trial aims to determine clinical utility for the diagnosis of stroke in emergency room settings. Valtari Bio has conducted clinical studies in over 500 real-world patients. Our preliminary clinical trial data suggests that the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing stroke, using a pattern of expression of associated immune related biomarkers, are much higher than current clinical practice.
Our seminal preclinical studies and clinical studies from others in this area support our findings and contribute to a strong foundation for the development of a point of care (POC) blood test based on patterns of immune responses for diagnosing acute stroke.